The digital printing process involves printing on different media like paper, fabric, acrylic, plastic, etc., directly from a digital-based image. It usually refers to professional printing where small-run jobs from desktop publishing and other digital sources are printed using large-format and/or high-volume laser or inkjet printers.
In SaP, a fully digital printing process will be implemented and upscaled to an industrial level, automating the production, demonstrating a 30% lower material usage, and reducing the curing time by 20%.
Solvothermal batch and flow chemistry
Solvothermal synthesis is a method of producing chemical compounds, in which a solvent containing reagents is put under high pressure and a temperature higher than the boiling point in a sealed vessel.
Flow chemistry is the process of performing chemical reactions in a tube or pipe. Reactive components are pumped together at a mixing junction and flowed down a temperature-controlled pipe or tube.
In SaP, these techniques will be used in the development of metallic-based conductive nanomaterials.
Ultrasonication technology focuses on applying intense ultrasound waves to liquids and slurries. The acoustic cavitation produced by intense sonication creates energy-dense conditions such as high pressure and temperature differences, as well as high shear forces and turbulence. These forces agitate particles, break droplets, and disrupt cells resulting in homogenization, dispersion, emulsification, and extraction effects.
Under SaP this technology will be used in the development of lignin/hybrid-based nanoparticles for pigments.
Polymerization and extrusion techniques
Polymerization is a process of reacting monomer molecules together in a chemical reaction to form polymer chains or three-dimensional networks.
Extrusion is a manufacturing molding process that involves forcing base material through a pre-shaped die to create objects with a specific shape and profile. In the case of polymers, the molten material is forced through a die and is used to produce components of a fixed cross-sectional area such as tubes and rods.
The SaP project will use specific polymerization and extrusion methods to synthesize recyclable PLA (polylactic acid) and PLA flexible biobased co-polymers-based foils.
Screen and inkjet printing
Screen printing is a popular printing method, using a process that presses ink through a mesh screen to create a printed design. It’s used in a huge range of industries across the globe to create custom clothing, canvasses, artwork, posters, and more.
In the project’s context, conductive and non-conductive inks with enhanced recyclability and biodegradability will be developed and tested using sustainable methodologies for screen and inkjet printing techniques.
Separation and recycling technologies
Mixtures can be physically separated by using methods that use differences in physical properties to separate the components of the mixture, such as evaporation, distillation, filtration, and chromatography.
In terms of recycling, there are different types of techniques, which can be classified into three categories: mechanical, energy, or chemical. In chemical recycling, polymeric waste is broken down and recycled into new chemicals that can perform like virgin materials and be reused.
In SaP, separation and purification techniques will be combined with some specific chemical recycling methods to provide paths for the separation of the substrate, mounted components and printed component materials, and for the recycling of solvents and precious metals.