SaP Methodology

The methodology will be an iterative process founded on the IEU specification aimed at improving the recycling/biodegradation robustness, versatility, and efficiency of PE. To address this challenge, the SaP methodology was broken down into four distinct and interconnected focus areas.
  • Materials

    Development of biodegradable and/or recyclable substrate materials, and functional NMs utilized in ink formulations. Both substrates and nanomaterials (NMs) will balance effectiveness, scalability, environmental impact, and recyclability.
  • Formulations

    Development of environmentally benign ink formulations aimed at enhancing biodegradation and/or recycling of both NMs and substrates; and development of adhesives for component bonding with de-bonding-on-demand properties for easy separation and reuse of discrete components at End of Life (EoL).
  • Printing

    Development of digital printing methods using ink formulations (focus area 2) on substrates (focus area 1). The printing area also includes the challenge to integrate components using adhesives (focus area 2) on PE and quality tests of recyclable PE.
  • Circular Economy

    EoL for PE includes biodegradation and/or recycling of substrate and NMs. The final focus area breaks down and separates the PE into smaller elements that can then be refined into raw materials for focus area 1.

There is an interdependency between all focus areas providing a feedback loop in the development of sustainable PE.